Mecânicas ortodônticas e reabsorções radiculares

Antônio Marques de Faria Ganda, Ênio Tonnani Mazzieiro, Carlos Henrique Theodoro Batista

Resumo

A reabsorção radicular externa pode representar uma consequência iatrogênica da terapia ortodôntica, sendo representada pela perda de substância da raiz dentária. Níveis mínimos de perda radicular ortodonticamente induzidos são frequentes e não apresentam significado clínico. Entretanto, quando moderadas ou severas, devem-se adotar condutas baseadas nos fatores de risco e na magnitude das reabsorções. Esta revisão de literatura objetiva discutir a relação entre algumas técnicas e mecânicas ortodônticas e seu potencial de causar reabsorções radiculares. Observou-se que as causas da reabsorção radicular têm pouca relação com o tipo de mecânica utilizada. Parece existir uma maior relação com o tipo de movimento utilizado, por exemplo, intrusão, do que com o tipo de aparelho empregado para criar as forças. Alguns aspectos das técnicas ortodônticas representam fatores favorecedores de uma maior frequência de reabsorções radiculares como, o uso de elásticos intermaxilares, o fechamento de espaço das extrações dentárias ortodonticamente indicadas, as mecânicas intrusivas e os deslocamentos dentários extensos.

Palavras-chave

Reabsorção da raiz ;Ortodontia, mecânica ; Etiologia ; Fisiopatologia.

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Referências

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